Older people: Headlines
There are more than 67,000 people aged over 65 years living in Kirklees, 1 in 6 of the total population. By 2030, 1 in 5 Kirklees people will be aged over 65 years.
The over 85 population will rise even more from 8,300 to 14,800 by 2030, an increase of 78%. These are the people most likely to have complex health and social care needs.
Today’s older people are living happier, healthier and longer lives. At age 65 men can expect to live another 17 years and women 17.5 years, but only 8.1 of these years for men and 9.5 for women will be “disability free”. And there are large differences caused by deprivation, with at least 1 in 5 older people still living in poverty.
The health challenges for older people are different to those of working-age adults. The biggest are disability and frailty, falls, pain, incontinence, dementia, depression and obesity along with poor diets and physical inactivity.
Most older people are independent but 1 in 3 of those aged 75 need help or support to continue living in their own home.
Increasing numbers of older people live alone; this is expected to rise to over 34,000 by 2030.
1 in 6 older people are at risk of social isolation and most want more social contact in their lives.
Older people: Why is this issue important?
Today’s older people are challenging preconceptions about ageing and are living happier, healthier and longer lives. Fifty years ago, 1 in 10 children could expect to live to be 100; today it is 1 in 4.
In 2012 there were approximately 67,000 people aged over 65 years living in Kirklees, nearly 1 in 6 (15.4%) of the total population. By 2030 this is predicted to rise to 91,200, an increase of over 40%, which means 1 in 5 of those living in Kirklees will be aged over 65 years. The over 85 population was 8,300 and is predicted to increase to 14,800 by 2030, an increase of 78%3. These are the people most likely to have complex health and social care needs1. Projections suggest that if we continue today’s model of care, an additional 1,144 care home places will be required by 2030 for people over 65 (a 52% increase)4.
As the population ages, the costs of some age related health conditions will increase, but the population is also changing in other ways and older people should not automatically be seen as a burden. An increasingly older population does not just represent a cost to the public sector, it also provides an opportunity to make the most of older people’s contributions to the community. For example, in 2004 2,000 people aged 65 and over were economically active (3.9%); by 2012 this had risen to 4,100 (6.8%)5. In Kirklees 8 out of 10 (79%) people aged over 65 are home-owners1. Those aged over 65, through taxes, spending power, provision of social care and the value of their volunteering, made an astonishing net contribution of £40bn to the UK economy. And as the overall number of people over 65 increases and people remain healthier for longer, opportunities to make a positive contribution through work or volunteering will only grow.
Disability free life expectancy is a nationally calculated estimate based on averages that tells us how long people can expect to live free from disability and long-term illness6. At present in Kirklees the disability free life expectancy when people reach 65 is 8.1 years for men and 9.5 years for women, which means that on average people can expect to be healthy and free from long-term health problems well into retirement. In fact with overall life expectancy at 65 being 82 years for men and 84.5 years for women at age 65 people in Kirklees can expect to spend half of their retirement free from disability. However this is not true for all groups. The Marmot Review highlighted the impact of deprivation on both life expectancy and disability free life expectancy. Using national data the Marmot Review showed that those people living in the poorest areas can expect to spend the last 17 years of life with a disability starting 14 years before the state retirement age of 66, whilst those living in the least deprived areas spend the last 12 years of their life with a disability starting four years after retirement13.
Older people: What significant factors are affecting this issue?
Locally in 2012 nearly half (48%) of older people rated their health as good or excellent, although this was lower than those aged under 65 (69%)1.
Locally in 2012, slightly more than half (51%) of those aged over 65 reported having a long-term condition. They were much more likely than those aged under 65 years to have a long-term condition, particularly heart disease (16%), high blood pressure (43%), stroke (3%), diabetes (16%), back pain (22%), long-term pain (22%), incontinence (13%), dementia17 (7%) and depression (13%).
More than half (60%) of all those aged over 65 were overweight or orbese with 17% being obese1. Estimates show an increase in the number of obese people aged over 65 years from around 17,000 in 2012 to over 23,000 in 2030, an increase of 35%3.
Level of dependency
Most older people are independent with only 1 in 7 (14%) of those aged 65-74 and 1 in 3 (36%) of those aged 75 and over saying they needed any help or support to continue living in their own home. Of those who said they did need help:
- Half (51%) were dependent (needed help with feeding, dressing, bathing/toilet).
- 1 in 3 (32 %) of those aged 65-74 and more than 2 in 5 (43%) of those aged over 75 years needed help with indoor mobility (cleaning and housework, getting around inside the home).
- Older people are more at risk of the consequences of a range of health problems during the winter as the cold exacerbates underlying problems. The “excess winter death index” (the ratio of the difference in the number of deaths in the winter months compared with the summer months) for older people is 16.5, which is better than both regionally (20.1) and nationally (20.8)7 (see emergency preparedness section)
- Each year almost 1 in 4 people aged over 65 years, and 2 in 5 over 85 years, fall at least once, many of which are preventable. Such falls can break a hip or other bones and then significantly impair physical functioning8.
- In comparison to the national average both older men and older women in Kirklees are more likely to have an injury due to a fall, women are more likely than men (2.3% compared with 1.6%), and those men or women over 80 are even more likely (5.5%)8.
- The rate of hip fractures amongst older people locally is higher than nationally, rising with age to 1.6% in those aged 80 and over9.
Delirium is a clinical syndrome, that is, a collection of varied symptoms and signs that occur in combination, the causes of which are physical. Delirium can occur in people of any age, but is most typically seen in older people and it is the most common complication of acute hospital admission experienced by older people. Between 10% and 30% of older people admitted to hospital already have delirium. And between 15% and 60% of frail older people develop delirium in the course of an acute hospital stay. More than 50% of older people develop delirium post-surgery [i].
The risk factors for delirium include older age, dementia/memory problems, serious illness and current hip fracture. These are exacerbated by infection, dehydration, poor nutrition, immobility and pain.
Delirium itself, quite apart from the underlying cause, is harmful: in its effects on outcomes for the person, in the distress caused to both the person and their relatives, and in the increased costs of care. It is associated with poor outcomes such as those mentioned below:
- It has an adverse effect on recovery and mortality (delirium increases risk of death two-fold).
- It increases risk of complications while in hospital.
- It contributes to worse physical and cognitive status at 6 and 12 months after discharge – people with delirium are six times more likely to develop dementia within three years.
Poor diets and malnutrition are high in those who are very old as is being physically inactive8. Locally those over 75 are the most likely to never do any physical activity1. But more encouragingly older people are less likely to smoke or drink alcohol. Locally:
- Only 1 in 10 of those aged over 65 years smoked, the lowest rate of any age group1.
- Whilst half of all those aged 65 and over (51%) are likely to be drinking at increasing risk levels, this is much lower than the rate amongst adults under 65 (73%).
Nationally 1 in 6 (15%) older people are at risk of social isolation, and this risk increases with advancing age [ii]. Loneliness has a similar impact on mortality as smoking 15 cigarettes per day12. Lack of social interaction has been linked with the onset of degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and also depression.
1 in 3 (34%) of those aged 65-74 and nearly half (45%) of those aged over 75 years lived alone1 and this is set to increase dramatically (see below). Amongst people who use social care 6.9% said they had little social contact and felt socially isolated, compared to a national average of 5.0%. The vast majority were living in the community (87%), whilst the remainder (13%) were in residential/nursing care. Only 1 in 3 (30%) of all respondents said they had as much social contact as they liked in their lives.
Notable risk factors for social isolation include living alone, being single, divorced, never married, low income, family not living close by, or living in residential care. Key transitions which can trigger loneliness include retirement, becoming a carer and bereavement15. There is also evidence that ethnic minority elders may be amongst the loneliest and that gay men and lesbians are at greater risk of becoming lonely and isolated and loneliness rises steeply among those aged over 80. Evidence indicates that interventions to alleviate loneliness can significantly reduce spending on health services [iii].
Living alone increases the risk for older people of poor health, difficulties in basic activities of daily living, worse memory and mood, lower physical activity, poorer diet, worsening function, social isolation, hazardous alcohol use and multiple falls [iv]. Locally, in 2012, 1 in 3 (34%) of those aged 65-74 and over half (45%) of those aged over 75 years lived alone1. By 2030 it is expected that an additional 8,200 people aged over 65 years in Kirklees are likely to be living alone. Of the 34,100 living alone in 2030, nearly 23,000 will be aged over 75 years and 3 in 4 will be women3.
Poor housing can increase the need for care. Locally, 1 in 10 people aged over 65 years said their current home was inadequate for their needs, usually as the house was too expensive to heat, too large, unsuitable because of health problems/disability or public transport was inadequate1. This lack of access to adequate transport networks can lead to social isolation and loss of independence. The Strategic Market Housing Assessment10 and The Older People’s Accommodation Strategy11 recognised the growing need for a wider range of suitable housing for older people to meet their needs to live independently.
The changing climate and fuel poverty also have an effect on the living conditions and health of older people.
Nearly 1 in 3 (30%) older people in Kirklees are living in poverty. This ranges from 26% in south Kirklees to 35% in north Kirklees, but there are even bigger differences between local areas – 47% in Batley to 18% in the Holme Valley.
The pensioner poverty rate is based on the number of pensioners living in households claiming Pension Credit Guarantee Credit only or both Guarantee and Savings Credit. The most recent estimates by the DWP of the levels of take up for these benefits are between 71% and 82%18. Therefore if everyone who was entitled to these benefits claimed them the actual numbers of pensioners living in poverty would be between 28% and 32% of all pensioners living in Kirklees.
Older people: Where is this causing greatest concern?
Men aged 65 and over in the Holme Valley and Batley had the longest life expectancy of 83.4 years, versus 81.8 years for men aged 65 and over in Colne Valley, a gap of 1.6 years.
Women aged 65 in every locality had longer life expectancy than men.
Women in Denby Dale & Kirkburton and Mirfield had the longest life expectancy at over 86 years, versus 84.1 years for women in Batley, a gap of two years. Across Kirklees women at 65 years old are likely to live 2.4 years more than men.
Older people: Views of local people
Today’s older people are extremely heterogeneous, encompassing people with radically different life experiences and a wide age span of 40 years or more.
When older people are engaged in decision-making, they are more easily able to understand the reasons for cuts and are eager to work with commissioners to find effective solutions that meet local needs.
Older people wish to be informed and engaged on all local matters, not just on those that are assumed to be of interest, such as health and social care16.
Older people have said that we should try to build support around these to improve their quality of life, sustain their independence and help them to live life to the full4.
Older people: What could commissioners and service planners consider?4
- Understanding the implications of the new Equalities Act and “age proofing” services to ensure compliance.
- Engaging younger people sooner and enabling them to enter later life as well equipped as possible to lead longer and healthier lives.
- Continuing to contribute to their communities as leaders, workers, volunteers and educators will be crucial to both making the most of this new generation of older people and also to mitigate the impact of the significant growth in the numbers of more vulnerable older people.
Promoting positive behaviours:
- Physical activity reduces the risk of musculoskeletal pain, mobility and balance, independence and quality of life. Inactivity can be life limiting, physical activity improves both the physical and mental health of older adults and the quality of people’s lives.
- As older people generally prefer to remain in their homes as long as possible, developing a range of accommodation choices in supportive communities, with activities and services to enable them to do this will be particularly important. Investment in solutions which prevent problems happening, pick them up early and sort them out if they do happen, will be key e.g. growing social capacity to offer practical support and friendship, “handy persons” schemes, assistive technology and that “little bit of help” during short periods of illness to regain independence.
- The greater likelihood of long-term conditions among older people means that development of the management of these conditions and the increased emphasis on self-care need to reflect the capabilities, aspirations and expectations of older people.
Older people: Date this section was last reviewed
Older people: References
- NHS Kirklees and Kirklees Council. Current Living in Kirklees (CLIK) Survey; 2012.
- Kirklees Council, Poverty Needs Assessment; 2012.
- Projecting Older People Population Information (POPPI) System. Available from: http://www.poppi.org.uk/
- Kirklees Council, Vision for Older People; 2008.
- ONS – NOMIS Labour Market Statistics (accessed 21 November 2012).
- ONS. Life Expectancy Estimates by Local Area in the UK. [Online].
- West Midlands Public Health Observatory The Older People’s Health Atlas. Available from: http://www.wmpho.org.uk/olderpeopleatlas/atlas/atlas.html
- Department of Health. Our Health and Wellbeing Today; 2010. Available from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/@ps/documents/digitalasset/dh_122238.pdf
- Department of Health, Public Health Outcomes for Kirklees; 2012. Available from: http://www.phoutcomes.info/
- Kirklees 2012 Strategic Housing Market Assessment.
- Kirklees Older People Accommodation Strategy.
- Age UK, Later Life in the UK; 2012.
- Marmot M. Fair Society, Healthy Lives: Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England Post 2010; 2010. Available from: http://www.marmot-review.org.uk/
- Kirklees Council Adult Social Care Survey; 2012.
- Cann P, Jopling K. Safeguarding the Convoy; 2011.
- Kirklees Council, Valleys Older People Research, Spirul Research; 2010.
- Dementia Prevalence Calculator. Available from: http://www.dementiapartnerships.org.uk/diagnosis/dementia-prevalence-calculator/
- DWP. Income Related Benefits: Estimates of Take-up in 2009-10; February 2012. Available from: http://research.dwp.gov.uk/asd/income_analysis/feb2012/tkup_full_report_0910.pdf
[i] NICE Clinical Guideline 103 Delirium: Diagnosis, Prevention and Management; July 2010. Available from: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13060/49909/49909.pdf
[ii] Iliffe S et al. Health Risk Appraisal in Older People 2: The Implications for Clinicians and Commissioners of Social Isolation Risk in Older People Br J Gen Pract; April 1 2007. 57(537): 277–282. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2043334/
[iii] Bolton M. Oxfordshire Age UK. Loneliness – the State We’re In; 2012. Available from: http://www.ageuk.org.uk/brandpartnerglobal/oxfordshirevpp/documents/loneliness%20the%20state%20we%20are%20in%20-%20report%202013.pdf
[iv] Kharicha K et al. Health Risk Appraisal in Older People 1: Are Older People Living Alone an “at-risk” Group Br J Gen Pract; April 1 2007. 57(537): 271–276. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2043328/
Around 15,500 Kirklees residents in their 60s are working and are likely to retire from work in the next few years.
Experience of retirement varies with differing levels of access to social, cultural and economic resources. The loss of a work role that is fundamental to identity and status, and loss of income can result in low life satisfaction and stress for some.
Around 1 in 8 people approaching retirement age will retire on an income below the “pensioner poverty” level; this is a particular challenge for single people.
Those most at risk of the negative impact of retirement are single, have a low educational level, lower income and poor health.
For some, retirement is an opportunity to help others, either through formal volunteering or providing informal care and support to family and friends.
Retirement: Why is this issue important?
Retirement age is when an employee chooses to retire. Most businesses don’t set a compulsory retirement age for their employees. If an employee chooses to work longer they can’t be discriminated against. Retirement age is not the same as State Pension age, which can be between 61 and 68, depending when someone was born and if they’re male or female. Anyone can carry on working past State Pension age. So the “life transition” of moving from employment into retirement is no longer focused on reaching state retirement age. Between 2006 and 2011 the average age that people in the UK retired was 63.6 for men and 62.3 for women.
In Kirklees there are around 42,000 people in their 60s and this number is expected to remain relatively static over the next 10 years. There is no local data on the number who retire but national data shows that more than half of all men (55%) and 1 in 3 (36%) women aged 60-64 are in employment, as are 1 in 4 (24%) men and 1 in 6 (15%) women aged 65-69. Therefore 1 in 3 (34%) people in their 60s, 15,500 people, are in employment and very likely to make the transition to being retired at some point in the next few years. Locally, we know that approximately 32% of men in their 60s and 24% of women in their 60s (29% of all adults in their 60s) were in employment in 2012. Although this is not a true measure of the number of people who retire in any year it gives a sense of scale to the numbers affected.
The length of time this cohort can expect to live is changing considerably. In 2012 a 65-year old man could have expected to live for another 17 years on average, to age 82, a 65-year old woman could expect to live for another 20 years, to age 85 on average2. This is expected to increase slowly and be in the region of 25 years for men and almost 28 years for women by 2050.
The experience of retirement varies with differing levels of access to social, cultural and economic resources that are important to life satisfaction. These factors include gender, age at retirement, social support, being in a relationship, general health, and employment status before retirement, income levels after retirement and education1. Retirement usually entails changes to economic circumstances. The loss of paid employment may lead to lower life satisfaction due to financial insecurity and a lower standard of living. On the other hand, for people with substantial financial resources these factors may not be of concern, while for others moving from unemployment to retirement may entail greater financial security if eligible for pension and other investment income. Locally, in 2012 only 7% of retired people said they had money worries all/almost all of the time – significantly lower than the overall Kirklees population (26%) and the lowest of all employment status groups.
It is predicted that 1 in 8 people approaching retirement will retire on an income from state and private pensions of less than the Pension Credit Guarantee level (currently £142.70 per week for single people and £217.90 for couples) and would therefore be reliant on state means tested benefits to ensure they had an income at this level3. The Pension Credit Guarantee level is used nationally as the measure of “pensioner poverty”. The current level is slightly above the “minimum income standard” for pensioner couples, but slightly below for single pensioners. The Census 2011 showed that nearly 1 in 3 (29%) of 55-64 year olds live alone, and half (48%) of those aged 65 and over.
- Around 18% of single pensioners and 6% of pensioner couples have no income other than the state retirement pension and other state benefits. It is a similar number to a decade ago.
- The proportion of workers without a current pension increases as household income decreases (i.e. they are a member of a pension scheme run by their employer or they have a pension that they arranged for themselves). Two-thirds of those in the poorest fifth do not have a current pension.
- For all ages from 40-60, around a third of workers do not have a current pension. Most workers aged 24 or less do not have a pension.
The proportion of people working at older ages has increased; many people are compelled to leave work before State Pension age due to circumstances beyond their control, such as health problems or the need to provide care for a family member. By the time men and women are aged between 60 and 64, around 30% of them have a disability that limits their ability to work5. Work-limiting disability is more common among older people in lower income quintiles, those with lower levels of education and manual workers who are also more likely than those in other occupations to leave work due to health problems. Locally, in 2012, 1 in 10 (11%) adults aged 60-64 years defined their status as long-term sick or disabled.
Disability free life expectancy is a nationally calculated estimate based on averages that tells us how long people live free from disability and long-term illness. In Kirklees the disability free life expectancy when people reach 65 is 8 years for men and 9.5 years for women; this means that people can expect to be healthy and free from long-term health problems well into retirement6. Those people living in the poorest areas can expect to spend the last 17 years of life with a disability starting 14 years before the state retirement age of 66, whilst those living in the least deprived areas spend the last 12 years of their life with a disability starting 4 years after retirement5.
Retirement: What significant factors are affecting this issue?
Unfortunately there is very little local data about the experience of retirement in Kirklees, what makes it a positive experience for some and a negative one for others. However, we do know that locally, in 2012, almost 3 in 4 (71%) of adults wholly retired from work said they had a physical or mental health condition that had lasted or was expected to last 12 months or more. Almost half (48%) of retired people had a long-term condition that limited their daily activities. There was also a high prevalence of co-morbidity amongst retired people. For example, 1 in 6 (16%) of retired people had four or more long-term conditions.
There are many social circumstances which may change at retirement. The end of working life can be associated with the loss of a role that is fundamental to identity and social status. This can result in disengagement from society due to the loss of social support and wider networks. However, locally, we know that in 2012, over 8 in 10 (81%) retired people never (or not often) felt lonely or isolated where they lived and over 9 in 10 (93%) had satisfactory “social connectedness” – amongst the highest of all employment status groups. Social networks and support have been found to be predictors of positive wellbeing across the life course. Social support and integration in the form of contact with family and friends can help maintain a high level of life satisfaction after retirement8. The composition of social networks with family members, friends, former co-workers and retired friends may change with retirement.
Retirees may also experience low motivation and boredom if they are unable to replace lost roles with new activities. Locally, in 2012, almost 1 in 3 (32%) retired people were from the least motivated Healthy Foundations (HF) motivation segment; a segment characterised by low levels of self-esteem, feelings of self-control and multiple health problems and risky health behaviours. For some people the disruption brought about by retirement may be associated with low levels of life satisfaction and high levels of stress5. However, in Kirklees, in 2012, the average positive wellbeing score of retired people was slightly better than average and similar to that of all people aged over 65 years. In addition levels of overall life satisfaction, feeling worthwhile, happiness and anxiety were very similar to those of the population as a whole. However, for retired people in the least motivated HF segment, these were all significantly worse.
Providing care can affect people’s ability to work at older ages. By the age of 50, three fifths of people still have a living parent and just over a third are grandparents. At the same time, 69% of men aged 50-64 and 63% of women aged 50-59 are in paid employment. This generation of people in their 50s and 60s may thus be combining paid work with care giving, either for young grandchildren while their parents work, or for elderly relatives and others who require care. Some may be doing both, and perhaps also have dependent children still living at home. This “sandwich” or “pivot” generation may therefore have a multiplicity of roles, in both their work and family lives. Locally, we know that over 1 in 5 (21%) of retired people are carers, yet little is known about how care-giving activities figure in the decisions that people in this age group make about remaining in or leaving paid employment7.
Taking on a caring role is also viewed positively amongst some individuals and families within this group; people having more time available is often used to ease the burden of those around them who might be caring for children within the family or even close friends. People are also caring for older or disabled relatives and close friends. In some cases people reconnect with family life on a day-to-day level they had not previously experienced12.
Involvement with volunteering increases with age. The additional time that people may have on their hands is an asset that is being utilised at both a formal and informal level10. People are supporting activities in their local areas that are of interest to them such as organisations that support people going through similar life experiences to themselves; and also supporting families and close neighbours11. Locally 2 out of 3 (63%) of those aged 65-74 already help out at a local group/club/organisation, compared with 39% of those aged 55-64.
Life experiences shape us all and individuals are often keen to help others going through similar life events, such as major life transitions, difficult circumstances such as money problems or job loss, and experiencing illness or loss13. This support is often rewarding for the individual as they feel people are benefiting from their experiences, and also the recipient feels two benefits: firstly that people have been through this before and also reassured by the fact that someone really understands the situation that they are in.
Retirement: Which groups are most affected by this issue?
The effect of retirement on life satisfaction differs for a range of reasons, depending on the individual circumstances surrounding the retirement transition. The associated change may be negative or positive, or there may be no change at all.
Women may spend many years out of the workforce caring for others and may move in and out of the workforce more frequently as they juggle work and family roles. Therefore the transition from employment to retirement may not have a clearly defined effect on life satisfaction for women because they may have already adapted to changes in employment status earlier in the life course7.
There are a number of groups who are more at risk of having limited resources at retirement3:
- Single individuals (whether divorced, widowed or never married) are more at risk of having limited resources than married individuals and, among single individuals; women tend to be more at risk than men8.
- Having low education and low numeracy are associated with being at greater risk of having an income of less than the Pension Credit Guarantee level in retirement. However, the relationship between education/numeracy and replacement rates is more complicated because, whilst those with higher education tend to have higher incomes in retirement, they also tend to have a higher working-life income to replace.
- Those in lower deciles of current income are more at risk of having a pension income at the State Pension age below the Pension Credit Guarantee level. Those in higher income deciles are more at risk of having an income in retirement (either from just pensions or on a broader definition) that replaces less than 67% of their current total family net income.
Retirement: Where is this causing greatest concern?
The people who are at most risk of having limited resources during their retirement match the areas covered in the deprivation section, namely Batley, Dewsbury and areas of Huddersfield. However retirement and the factors surrounding it, such as ill health and caring responsibilities are prevalent across Kirklees and no areas should be overlooked.
Retirement: What could commissioners and service planners consider?
- Develop better quality local insight into the experience of retirement in Kirklees.
- Use a social marketing approach and segmentation tools such as the Healthy Foundations (HF) model to understand the relationship between key life events such as retirement, social circumstances, motivation levels and behaviours in order to target and commission services more appropriately and effectively.
- Enable more people to understand more clearly the retirement income they can expect.
- Encourage a more flexible approach to working so that people can continue in some form of work post State Pension age.
- Recognise social networks stemming from the workplace and how supportive they can be, rather than just investing in new network support for the newly retired.
- Have appropriate support for people struggling with the transition from work to retirement to enable them to establish a new role and purpose to their lives, particularly men.
1. Silcock D et al. Retirement Income and Assets: The Implications for Retirement Income of Government Policies to Extend Working Lives. Pensions Policy Institute; 2012.
2. ONS. Life Expectancy Estimates by Local Area in the UK. [Online].
3. O’Dea C. The Adequacy of Wealth Among Those Approaching Retirement. Institute for Fiscal Studies; 2012.
4. Meadows P. Early Retirement and Income in Later Life. Joseph Rowntree Foundation; 2002.
5. Phillipson C. Transitions from Work to Retirement - Developing a New Social Contract. Published for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation by The Policy Press; 2002.
6. ONS. Disability-free Life Expectancy (DFLE) for England, 2007–2009 (experimental statistics). [Online].
7. Mooney A, Statham J. The Pivot Generation: Informal Care and Work After 50. Bristol/York: The Policy Press/Joseph Rowntree Foundation; 2002.
8. Heybroek L. Life Satisfaction and Retirement: A Latent Growth Mixture Modelling Approach. University of Queensland; 2011.
10. Bussell H, Forbes D. Understanding the Volunteer Market: The What, Where, Who and Why of Volunteering. International Journal of Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Marketing; 2002.
11. Cabinet Office. Unshackling Good Neighbours; 2011.
12. Carers UK. Sandwich Caring – Combining Childcare with Caring for Older and Disabled Relatives; 2012.
13. Centre for Welfare Reform. Peer Support; 2011.
Retirement: Date this section was last reviewed