People and place
What could commissioners consider?
This District Committee summary uses a life course approach, from ‘Starting well’ (incorporating pregnancy and infancy, childhood development and educational attainment), through ‘Living well’ (adults aged 18-64) and ‘Working well’ (relating to those of working age), to ‘Ageing well’ (people aged 65 and over).
This summary also includes sections on ‘Population’ (including age and ethnicity profiles, population projections, fertility and mortality rates, and life expectancy) and ‘People and place’ (including perceptions of the local area, and wider factors such as air pollution, transport, money and housing).
- Kirklees Rural District Committee includes six political wards: Colne Valley, Denby Dale, Golcar, Holme Valley North, Holme Valley South and Kirkburton.
- The population of Kirklees Rural is increasing with the most substantial increase over the last 10 years in older people aged 65 and over and a decrease in the working aged population aged 30 to 44 (16%).(1) The population density of different age groups across Kirklees is shown in more detail in the population summary.
- The general fertility rate (live births per 1000 women aged 15-44) is significantly lower in Kirklees Rural than the Kirklees and national averages (57.6 for Kirklees Rural in 2015 compared with 64.2 for Kirklees and 62.5 for England). (2) (3)
- Although 95% of people living in Kirklees Rural are of a White British background although only 88% of births are in this group. Higher birth rates in ethnic minority groups suggests that the profile of this area will change in coming (4) (5) (6)
- Infant mortality rates (deaths in infants aged under 1 year per 1000 live births) (7) in Kirklees Rural are below the Kirklees average (but not at a statistically significant level). There has been a long-term decline in infant mortality rates in this area. In 2013-15, the infant mortality rate was 1.9 per 1000 in Kirklees Rural and 5.0 in Kirklees overall, neither being significantly different than the national average of 4.0 deaths per 1000. Infant mortality is linked to smoking in pregnancy, low birth weight and congenital abnormalities (defects that are present at birth).
- The proportion of low birth weight live births in 2015-16 (2.7%)(9) is also below the Kirklees average (3.5%) (but not at a statistically significant level).
- There are similar proportions of children across all areas of Kirklees Rural. Denby Dale has the lowest proportion of working age adults and Holme Valley South has the highest proportion of older age groups. (8)
- Kirklees Rural has a markedly older population profile than the rest of Kirklees, particularly in the Holme Valley and Denby Dale where more than a quarter of the population is aged 60 or over. The age profile in Colne Valley and Golcar is slightly younger; Kirkburton has the largest proportion of young people in this District Committee, with one in three people below the age of 25 years.
- Compared to Kirklees overall, male life expectancy at birth in Kirklees Rural (81.0 years) is higher that Kirklees overall (79.4 years). Female life expectancy at birth (83.6 years) is also higher than the Kirklees average (82.6 years). Male and female life expectancy at age 65 (84.0 and 85.9 years respectively) is slightly higher in Kirklees Rural than in Kirklees overall (83.4 and 85.6 years). In the last 10 years, male and female life expectancy at birth in Kirklees Rural has increased by 3.2 and 1.4 years respectively. (10 ) (11) (12)
We want every child to have the best start in life. Our aim is to enable all children and young people to maximise their capabilities and have control over their lives.
Many factors contribute to improving and maintaining the health and emotional wellbeing of a child, from their mother’s health pre-conception and through pregnancy, to their home and local environments and the support of local communities and schools. In this section, we look at some key ‘starting well’ indicators for Kirklees Rural.
- Compared to Kirklees as a whole, new mothers in Kirklees Rural have higher rates of starting breastfeeding (82% vs 77%) and breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks after delivery (47% vs 43%). (13) (14) (15)
- Smoking rates amongst pregnant women in Kirklees Rural are similar to the Kirklees average (12% in Kirklees Rural and 13% in Kirklees overall). (16) Smoking in pregnancy is a key risk factor for low birth weight and, later, childhood asthma.(16) (17)
- The proportion of reception pupils achieving a good level of development (GLD) in Kirklees Rural is 72% which is higher than Kirklees and nationally (68% and 69% respectively). However, there is a clear gap between ‘all reception class pupils’ and those who are ‘free school meal eligible’. Only 46% of pupils who are eligible for free school meals achieve a GLD in Kirklees Rural, less than those in Kirklees overall (51%).
- There are inequalities between boys (67%) and girls (78%) achieving a GLD in Kirklees Rural, a similar pattern to Kirklees as a whole. In Kirklees Rural and across Kirklees this indicator also demonstrates inequalities between ethnic groups, particularly between white (69%), black (51%) and South Asian (60%) ethnicities, and between the most and least deprived areas (61% and 77%, respectively). (18)
Emotional health and wellbeing
- Emotional wellbeing in 14 year olds (school year 9) does not differ significantly between District Committee areas. (19)
- A new baseline measure for resilience in children and young people was established in 2015.(20) This shows that on average children and young people in Kirklees have good-to-average levels of resilience. Resilience levels were the same on average in Kirklees Rural as they were in the other District Committees and in Kirklees overall. Whilst this is positive there is scope to improve this further. (19)
- One in 17 (6%) 14 year olds had daily problems getting to sleep because of being anxious or worried. This was slightly higher than Kirklees overall. This has reduced from one in 13 (8%) in 2009. The rate was slightly higher in girls (6%) than boys (4%) and slightly higher in the most deprived areas than the least deprived areas. (19)
- One in 25 (4%) of 14 year olds in Kirklees Rural said they had anxiety or depression in 2014 which was slightly higher than Kirklees overall and the other District Committees. (19)
- In Kirklees Rural, one in 13 (8%) 14 year olds (school years 9 and 10) said they had been bullied once a week or more in the last two months. This proportion is lower than Kirklees overall (10%) and both figures have halved since 2009 (16% and 20% respectively). (19)
Food, obesity and physical activity
- The proportion of healthy weight 4-5 year-old children is similar to the Kirklees average (78% vs 77% for Kirklees). The proportion of healthy weight 10-11 year-olds is higher than the Kirklees average (69% compared with 62%).(21)
- Around 2 in 3 (65%) of young people (aged 11-18 years) in Kirklees Rural eat takeaway meals less than once a week or never which is similar to Kirklees overall (64%). (19)
- Almost three in five (58%) 14 year olds have breakfast every day before school, slightly higher than Kirklees overall (50%). One in seven (15%) never eat breakfast before school, similar to Kirklees overall (14%). (19)
- Around one in four (28%) 11 year olds and one in five (22%) 14 year olds eat five or more portions of fruit or vegetables a day; these figures are the highest of all four District Committees. (19)
- Almost one in four (23%) 14 year olds met the recommended level of 60 minutes of physical activity per day, higher than Kirklees overall (18%). One in five (19%) did not take part in any regular exercise, similar to Kirklees overall (21%).(19)
- One in eight (13%) 14 year olds in Kirklees Rural said they had a health problem or disability in 2014. This is the same as Kirklees overall (13%). This has decreased from one in 6 (15%) in 2009. (19)
- One in 17 (6%) 14 year olds in Kirklees Rural said they had asthma, which is lower than Kirklees overall (7%). Asthma rates were higher in the most deprived areas and slightly higher in girls (9%) than boys (7%) overall. (19)
- In 2012-2014, the teenage conception rate in Kirklees Rural was 22.9 per 1000 which was lower than Kirklees overall 27.1 per 1000 and nationally. Kirklees Rural has the lowest rate of all the District Committees and rates in general are declining across Kirklees. (22)
- Most (87%) 14 year olds (school year 9) in Kirklees Rural have not had sex, slightly lower than in 2009 (90%). In Kirklees as a whole, the proportion of 14 year olds who have not had sex has remained the same since 2009 (87%). (19)
- Of young people who have had sex in Kirklees Rural, 63% said they always used a condom. This is higher than Kirklees overall (40%) but has decreased from 70% in 2009. There were no significant inequalities between males and females or between the more and less deprived areas. (19)
Tobacco, alcohol and drug misuse
- In 2014, 65% of 14 year olds (school year 9) in Kirklees Rural said they have tried alcohol, which is less than in 2009 (81%). For Kirklees overall there is a downward trend (51% in 2014 vs 66% in 2009). There was a significant difference between the proportion of 14 year olds in the least deprived areas (38%) and the most deprived areas (66%) who had tried alcoho,l but there was no significant difference between males (52%) and females (57%). (19)
- In Kirklees Rural, the proportion of 14 year olds drinking weekly or more reduced from 13% in 2009 to 6% in 2014. This was similar to the trend for Kirklees overall which reduced significantly from 22% in 2009 to 10% in 2014. (19)
- One in 20 (5%) 14 year olds in Kirklees Rural smoke regularly which is similar to 2009 and is the same as Kirklees overall (5%). One in three (34%) 14 year olds live with an adult who smokes which is slightly higher than in 2009 (30%) and is the same as Kirklees overall (34%). A similar proportion of 14 year olds in Kirklees Rural (9%) report using e-cigarettes compared with Kirklees overall (10%). This indicator provides a new baseline for future analyses. (19)
- One in 14 (7%) 14 year olds in Kirklees Rural reported they had tried drugs which reduced from 10% in 2009. This is slightly lower than Kirklees as a whole where 9% reported they had tried drugs (a reduction from 12% in 2009). There was some difference between the proportion of 14 year olds in the least deprived areas (6%) and the most deprived areas (12%) who had tried drugs but this was not statistically significant. (19)
- Cannabis was the most commonly used drug with 6% of 14 year olds in Kirklees rural (who had ever tried drugs) and 7% of those in Kirklees overall having tried it. (19)
- Overall, GCSE attainment (five or more A*-C grades in GCSEs including English and maths) in 2015/16 was higher for pupils living in Kirklees Rural (63%) than Kirklees overall (57%). These rates have fallen more dramatically over the past five years in Kirklees Rural (in 2010/11 70% of pupils were reaching this standard) than elsewhere in Kirklees. There was a significant gender inequality in Kirklees Rural with higher levels of attainment in females (71%) than males (56%). Significant inequalities also exist across Kirklees between pupils living in the least deprived areas (74%) and those living in the most deprived areas (43%). (23)
- The pupil absence rate in Kirklees Rural was significantly lower than Kirklees overall (35 vs 43 absence sessions per 1000 possible sessions). (24)
- In 2016, the amount of NEET young people (those aged 16 to 18 not in full time education, training or employment) in Kirklees Rural was 1.6% which was lower than Kirklees overall (2.5%) and lower than the national average (6.5%). (25)
A young carer is a person aged between eight and 18 years who provides unpaid care to somebody because of a physical disability; mental ill health; sensory impairment; substance misuse; long-term condition; learning disability or illness.
- In 2014, 8% of Kirklees students identified themselves as carers of a parent, relative, brother or sister. (19)
- One in 14 (7%) 14 year olds in Kirklees Rural said that they were a carer for a family member. This compares with one in 13 (8%) in Kirklees overall where 2% cared for a parent with an illness; 3% for a sibling with an illness; and 2% for another relative. (19)
This stage of the life course spans the ages 18 to 64, and covers more than 60% of the population of Kirklees. Although many people are continuing to work to an older age before retiring, for convenience we are also referring to this age group as ‘working age’.
Many of the lifestyle choices and health behaviours of people in this age group will have a direct impact on their health and emotional wellbeing, potentially limiting their ability to work and live their life to the full. Enabling people to adopt a healthier lifestyle during this phase of life alongside addressing the wider determinants of health such as income, employment and housing can improve health and quality of life in older age.
Emotional health and wellbeing
- Emotional wellbeing of the working age population (measured using the SWEMWBS tool)(26) is significantly higher than the Kirklees average. Emotional wellbeing is at its lowest point in those aged between 45 and 54 years. (27)
- Just under one in three (31%) working age adults report having mental health problems such as depression or anxiety, slightly lower than the Kirklees average (35%). This proportion has increased in Kirklees Rural from one in five (21%) in 2012. (27)
Food, obesity and physical health
- Eating and dietary habits in Kirklees Rural are healthier than in other parts of Kirklees. Cooking confidence is above the Kirklees average for working age adults (91% of Kirklees Rural residents are quite or very confident cooking from basic ingredient, compared to 86% in Kirklees). Similarly, working age adults are more likely to cook a meal at least once a week (93% vs 89%) and eat 5 or more fruit and vegetables a day (71% vs 66%). (27)
- Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease (including heart attacks and stroke) and some cancers so rising levels of obesity are a key concern. Less than half of the working age population in Kirklees Rural are a healthy weight (44%). Overweight and obesity levels in Kirklees Rural are similar to the Kirklees average for working age adults. 55% of working age people in Kirklees Rural are overweight and 19% are obese, compared with 54% and 21% respectively in Kirklees. Obesity rates are highest amongst older adults, with obesity almost twice as prevalent in those aged 55 to 64 years (25%) as those aged 18 to 34 years (13%). (27)
- Almost two in five (38%) working age adults in Kirklees Rural meet the recommended physical activity levels, slightly above the Kirklees average (36%). This is lower for woman than for men (34% vs 43%). (27)
- Clusters of unhealthy behaviours are an issue of concern across Kirklees. In Kirklees Rural and in Kirklees overall, almost one in ten (9%) women of childbearing age have a combination of three unhealthy behaviours (relating to diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, or drug use). This is similar to the level within the general adult population of Kirklees Rural (10%). Health behaviours are poorest amongst those of middle age, with one in seven (15%) of those aged between 45 and 54 years having three or more negative health behaviours .(27)
- One in five (22%) people aged between 18 and 65 years suffer from 3 or more long-term conditions; below the Kirklees average (27%). Co-morbidity (having more than one condition or disease at the same time) is strongly associated with age. 12% of 18 to 34 year olds have three or more long-term conditions compared with 30% of those aged 45 to 54 years.
- The prevalence of all long-term conditions amongst adults is very similar to the Kirklees average. The five most common long-term conditions in people aged under 65 years of age are shown below:
- Mental health problems such as depression or anxiety are experienced by one in three (31%); back pain such as sciatica/ lumbago by one in six (16%); joint and skeletal issues by one in eight (12%); long term pain by one in eight (12%) and high blood pressure by one in nine (11%). (27)
- The proportion of adults under the age of 65 years with a long-term condition who feel confident that they can manage that condition is higher in Kirklees Rural (four in five (80%)) than Kirklees overall (three in four (75%). (27)
- The self-reported diabetes rate in adults, aged below 65 years, is slightly lower in Kirklees Rural than the Kirklees average (5% and 6%, respectively). Occurrence of diabetes is strongly related to age. The rate of diabetes in those aged between 35 and 44 years is half the rate of those aged 45 to 54 years (3% vs 6%) and less than a third the rate of those aged 55 to 64 years (10%). (27)
- Overall mortality rates in people aged below 75 years are significantly lower in Kirklees Rural than in Kirklees overall (289.2 per 100,000 for Kirklees Rural vs 345.9 per 100,000 for Kirklees). Mortality rates in people aged under 75 years were lower than the Kirklees average for cancer (133.0 vs 140.9 per 100,000), circulatory diseases (66.7 vs 79.2 per 100,000) and respiratory diseases (24.6 vs 37. Per 100,000). None of these differences are statistically significant. (10)
- One in twelve (8%) of working age adults regularly smoke, a rate which is almost half the Kirklees average (14%). Smoking rates appear to be declining in Kirklees Rural, having fallen from 12% in 2012. Smoking rates are highest in Colne Valley (12%) and lowest in Holme Valley South (4%). This difference is statistically significant. (27)
- Only one in 17 (6%) adults aged under 65 years use e-cigarettes. The most common reasons for using e-cigarettes was because it is healthier than smoking (44%) and because it is cheaper than regular cigarettes (36%). (27)
- The proportion of people who drink alcohol is higher than the Kirklees average (89% for Kirklees Rural vs 74% for Kirklees). The proportion of drinkers who exceed the recommended weekly limit of 14 units increases with age, rising from one in five (18%) of those aged 18 to 34 years to one in three (33%) of those aged 55 to 64 years. (27)
- Only one in 11 (9%) of people aged 18-65 years, in Kirklees Rural self-report using illegal substances in the last five years, the same as Kirklees overall. Use of illegal substances decreases with age, being highest in those aged 18-34 years (one in eight (13%)) and lowest in those aged 55 to 64 years (one in 12 (8%). While cannabis is the most commonly reported used substance (74% of drug users), use of cocaine and ecstasy are both above the Kirklees average (39% vs 33% for cocaine and 29% vs 22% for ecstasy). (27)
Two key outcomes for Kirklees are that people have aspiration and achieve their ambitions through education, training and lifelong learning, and that Kirklees has sustainable economic growth and provides good employment. The benefits to health and emotional wellbeing of good quality employment are well documented. This section highlights those indicators contributing to ‘working well’ in Kirklees Rural.
- Over three in four (79%) working age adults are qualified to at least level 2, more than the Kirklees average (67%). Both figures have fallen slightly since 2012 (81% for Kirklees Rural and 72% for Kirklees). (27)
- Around 1% of the working age population are claiming Jobseekers Allowance in Kirklees Rural. This is lower than the figure across Kirklees (2%). (28)
- Almost two in three of the adult population is in employment (62%), with a further one in four people retired (25%) and one in 100 in education (1%). The proportion of working age people in employment was around a third higher for those with at least level two qualifications (82%) compared with those without (61%). (27)
- Around one in five (22%) working adults in Kirklees Rural have experienced an illness in the last 12 months which required them to take time off work. Of those experiencing an illness, just under two in three (59%) reported that it resulted in a work absence of over two months. Co-morbidity appears to be associated with length of time off work. The average number of long-term conditions suffered by those with short absences (less than a week) was 2.2 conditions and the average number suffered by those with longer absences (seven to 12 months) was 4.7 conditions. (27)
- Levels of volunteering in Kirklees Rural are the highest in Kirklees. Almost one in three (31%) adults in the general population of Kirklees Rural gives unpaid help to a group, club or organisation at least once a month. Volunteering is highest amongst those aged between 65 and 74 years (38%). The most commonly provided types of volunteering are leading a group (12%), visiting people (11%) and organising groups (9%).(27)
The prevalence of common long-term conditions (e.g. heart disease, hypertension, stroke, respiratory disease, diabetes) all increase as people get older, along with other health issues such as visual impairment, mental ill health and physical disabilities. These factors have a significant impact on people’s independence and need for care and support. Prevention and early intervention is therefore, vital to enable people be as well as possible for as long as possible, live independently and have control over their lives.
The number and proportion of people aged 65 years and over in Kirklees is projected to rise, from around one in seven people (16%) in 2015 to one in five people (21%) by 2030 (an increase of around 34,000 people).
Emotional health and wellbeing
Older people appear to have higher emotional wellbeing than those of younger age groups. In Kirklees Rural those aged 65 years and over have higher emotional wellbeing than adults aged 18-64 years (based on SWEMWBS scores), although this difference is not statistically significant. SWEMWBS scores are significantly higher amongst people aged 65 years or over in Kirklees Rural than the Kirklees average for this age group. (27)
- The prevalence of long-term conditions increases with age and co-morbidity (having more than one condition or disease at the same time) also increases with age. In Kirklees Rural over one in three (37%) people aged 65 years or over suffer from three or more long-term health conditions, compared one in five (22%) of those aged 18-64 years. (27)
- The most common long-term conditions reported by those aged 65 years or over are shown below:
- The five most common conditions are high blood pressure (two in five, 40%); musculoskeletal issues (over one in four, 28%); back pain (one in five, 21%); long term pain (one in six, 17%) and mental health problems (one in six, 17%). The self-reported prevalence of chronic disease also increases with age – comparing those aged 65 years or above with those aged 18-64 years, heart disease is eight times more likely (16% vs 2%, respectively); cancer is four times more likely (8% vs 2%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is three times more likely (6% vs 2%). (27)
- One in six people (17%) aged 65 years or over report having some health condition which affects their memory. (27)
- Around one in 14 (7%) of those aged 65 years or over are regular smokers, similar to the rate amongst those aged 18 to 64 years (8%). Those aged 65-74 years are around one and a half times as likely to smoke relative to those aged over 75 years (8% vs 5%). (27)
- Only 3% of people aged 65 years or over currently use e-cigarettes in Kirklees Rural, which is half the percentage of those aged 18-64 years (6%), and slightly less than the proportion across Kirklees (4%). (27)
- Adults aged 65 years or over in Kirklees Rural are less likely to drink alcohol than those under the age of 65 years (83% of over 65 years or over report drinking at least occasionally vs 89% of those under 65 years). This is a reversal of the overall Kirklees trend, where a higher proportion of people over 64 years drink, compared to people under 65 years (76% vs 74%). Almost one in five (23%) people who drink and are aged over 64 years drink to excess (more than 14 units a week). (27)
- Use of illegal substances is very low in the over 65 year age group, with less than one in 100 survey respondents (>1%) saying they had used drugs in the last five years. (27)
Remaining healthy, active and independent
- Almost two in three (61%) people aged 65 years or over are above their healthy weight, with one in five (19%) being obese. These are similar to the rates across Kirklees. (27)
- Less than half (42%) of people aged 65 years or over undertake 150 minutes of moderate physical activity per week. This is slightly higher than the Kirklees average for this age group (39%), but within this group physical activity levels decline with age. (27)
- Problems with mobility and self-care also increase with age. One in four (25%) people in Kirklees Rural aged over 64 years has moderate to extreme problems with mobility, and almost one in 17 (6%) has moderate to extreme problems with self-care. Both of these values are below the Kirklees average (31% and 8%). (27)
- One in 11 (9%) people aged 65 years or over report that they require some assistance to remain living within their own home, below the Kirklees average (14%). Of those requiring help, one in 14 (7%) are not currently receiving it from family, friends or professional care workers. (27)
- Half of people (49%) aged 65 years or over report feeling lonely some, most or all of the time, reducing to around one in 50 (2%) who feel lonely all or most of the time. These values are lower than for those under 65 years (53% of those aged 18-64 years feel lonely at least some of the time and 5% all or most of the time). Over nine in ten people (93%) aged 65 years or over in Kirklees Rural have good ‘social connectedness’ (they have someone they can count on to comfort them when they are upset or they have someone they can rely on to help them out in a crisis). This is slightly above the Kirklees average (91%). (27)
- One in four (25%) people aged 65 years or over has fallen and hurt themselves in the last 12 months, with a third (32%) of these falls resulting in a broken bone.(27)
People and place
An individual’s health, emotional wellbeing and quality of life may be improved or adversely affected by their perceptions of, and interactions with, their local area, as well as wider factors such as transport, air quality, finances and housing.
Kirklees partner organisations, therefore, want people in Kirklees to live in cohesive communities, feel safe, be safe and protected from harm. They also want people to experience a high quality, clean, sustainable and green environment and for Kirklees to have sustainable economic growth and provide good employment.
- Just under one in five (18%) adults in Kirklees Rural provide some sort of care for family, friends or neighbours in a voluntary capacity. There is a slightly larger proportion of carers in the under 65 years population (19%) than the over 65s (15%). (27)
- Carers providing high levels of care are twice as likely to suffer from ill health as non-carers. (30)
The local area
- Almost all residents of Kirklees Rural (96%) have access to green spaces within a mile of their home, and more than three in four (77%) use this space at least once a month, higher than the Kirklees average (66%). Usage reduces with age, from four in five (80%) of those aged under 65 years to two in three (67%) of those aged 65 years and over. (27)
- The proportion of people satisfied with their local area as a place to live is the highest in Kirklees. Nine in ten (90%) people are satisfied with their local area in Kirklees Rural compared to just over three in four (79%) in Kirklees overall. Satisfaction is highest amongst older age groups, with over nine in ten (93%) of people aged 75 years and over reporting they are satisfied. (27)
- Three in five (61%) working people in Kirklees Rural remain within Kirklees for work, similar to the Kirklees average (59%). The majority of people work in Huddersfield (52%), although one in 13 (8%) work in Leeds. (27)
- Around one in three (34%) people report using walking as a method of travel in Kirklees Rural, slightly lower than Kirklees overall (39%) and one in 20 use bicycles for travel (4%). Walking and cycling were more popular as a recreational or leisure activities (64% walking for leisure and 11% cycling for leisure). (27)
Air pollution is associated with a number of adverse health impacts. It is recognised as a contributing factor in the onset of heart disease and cancer and linked to asthma, stroke, diabetes, low birth weights and dementia. Additionally, air pollution particularly affects the most vulnerable in society: children and older people, and those with heart and lung conditions. There is also an important inequality dimension because areas with poor air quality are also often the less affluent areas.
The annual health cost to society of the impacts of particulate matter alone in the UK is estimated to be around £16 billion. (31).
The air quality issues within Kirklees are focussed around the road network connecting the towns, and traffic which passes between the West Yorkshire conurbation along the M62 and Greater Manchester. Kirklees Council have conducted monitoring across the district where these primary roads are in close proximity to relevant human activity. To date, Kirklees has identified two primary pollutants of concern. They are Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Particulate Matter (PM). Current trends indicate that the levels of these pollutants have fallen over the last 5 years, but the UK Air Quality Objectives (AQO) are still exceeded in some areas within Kirklees.
In 2015, NO2 levels at one out of three air quality monitoring sites in Kirklees Rural exceeded the AQO. Kirklees Council continues to conduct air quality improvement projects across the district. The table here lists improvement projects relevant to the Kirklees Rural area.
- Average gross household income in Kirklees Rural is £42,659 which is £7,587 above the Kirklees average. Household income remained fairly stable between 2011 and 2015, although it has seen a large jump of over £2,500 between 2015 and 2016.(32)
- Around one in seven (15%) adults worry about money all or almost all of the time. This proportion is lower than the rest of Kirklees, which has an average of just over one in five (22%). The proportion of people worrying about money, all or most of the time in Kirklees Rural has fallen from 2012 (when it was 19%), a trend consistent across the whole of Kirklees. Money worries are highest in young people, with one in five (21%) 18 to 34 year olds worrying all or most of the time. Only one in 25 (4%) people who are retired have frequent money worries. (27)
- Over nine in ten people (92%) are somewhat or very confident in their own ability to budget and pay bills on time. Confidence increases with age and household income, and decreases with deprivation. (27)
- In 2014 there were 112 per 1000 households in fuel poverty in Kirklees Rural, compared with 116 per 1000 in Kirklees overall and 106 per 1000 nationally. In Kirklees Rural , fuel poverty rates were highest in Colne Valley (141 per 1000) and lowest in Denby Dale and Holme Valley South (95 per 1000 in both). (27)
- The median house price in Kirklees Rural in 2015 was £154,000. This is higher than the Kirklees median of £130,000 and the highest of the sub-areas identified in the Kirklees Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA). (33)
 The median is the middle value in a series of values arranged from smallest to largest.
- Most adults consider their home to be suitable for their needs. However, one in 13 (8%) householders found their home to be unsuitable for their needs. This rises to one in eight (12%) of those who are parents or guardians to at least one child under the age of 18 years. Perceived housing suitability is lowest in Holme Valley South (91%) and highest in Denby Dale and Kirkburton (94% each). This difference is not statistically significant. (27)
- The prevalence of overcrowded housing is very low, and less than a third of the Kirklees average (2% of households in Kirklees Rural and 7% in Kirklees). (27)
- A summary of reported crime statistics for Kirklees Rural can be found in this Kirklees Observatory profile: http://observatory.kirklees.gov.uk/profiles/profile?profileId=132
- Most (85%) 14 year olds feel safe when at school, a slight reduction from the 2009 figure (88%). Most (81%) 14 year olds feel safe when they are in the community, similar to 2009 (82%) and slightly higher than Kirklees overall (78%). Most (73%) 14 year olds also feel safe when they were on public transport; the same as the Kirklees average but slightly lower than in 2009 (76%). (19)
- Over half (55%) of 14 year olds in Kirklees Rural feel that people of different ages get on well together, the same as the Kirklees average. (19)
- Over three in four (77%) of adults in Kirklees Rural agree their local area is a place where people treat each other with respect and consideration (compared with 63% in Kirklees overall). This decreases with age, reaching its lowest point in those aged between 35 and 44 years (73%) before starting to rise again. The rate is highest in Holme Valley South (85%) and lowest in Colne Valley (76%), although these differences are not statistically significant. (27)
- The proportion of people who agree their local area is a place where people pull together to improve things is significantly higher in Kirklees Rural (58%) than in Kirklees as a whole (39%). (27)
- Almost four in five (79%) people in Kirklees Rural agree that their local area is a place where people of different ages get on well together. This is highest in adults under the age of 35 years (84%). (27)
Health assets are those things that enhance the ability of individuals, communities and populations to maintain and sustain health and well-being. These include things like skills, capacity, knowledge, networks and connections, the effectiveness of groups and organisations and local physical and economic resources.
Assets are hugely important to how we feel about ourselves, the strength of our social and community connections and how these shape our health and wellbeing.
As part of our KJSA development we are piloting a range of methods to capture and understand the assets that are active in Kirklees. Please see the assets overview section for more information about our approach. We want to understand more about how these assets improve health and wellbeing directly or indirectly by, for example, providing space, support, companionship or guidance around a common interest or need such as mental or emotional health problems. This knowledge will help us understand where the gaps in assets might be and where additional support or investment would benefit local communities.
The community assets in Kirklees Rural summarised here were identified during a ‘Connecting Colleagues’ event in winter 2016. The assets relate to just a few of the key issues identified in the KJSA and are not the whole picture of assets in Kirklees Rural. This information will be reviewed and updated on an ongoing basis. Additional local assets are outlined below.
Groups, event and activities
Asset Based Community Development (ABCD) is an approach used by community engagement officers to encourage greater connections between people in communities, and an opportunity for people to be more aware of their local assets. It focuses on raising awareness of the talents and skills people already have. It encourages people to recognise what is good about where they live, think more positively about what is around them and what can be achieved by working collectively together. This approach is developed to encourage sustained community activity which is community led and lasts beyond the engagement officer’s input.
Some examples of the local community groups, networks, activities and events in Kirklees Rural which are contributing to improved health and wellbeing across the life course are:
- Starting well
- ‘Ruddi’s Retreat’ charity, Linthwaite – a tea shop and meeting place for young families and community projects such as the creation of a community garden.
- ‘Friends of Honley Library’ – book festival/events held annually focusing on families and children who do not use the local library (funded by the District Committee 2017-18)
- ‘Aspire to Play Toy Library’, Royds Hall and Trust partner schools – fair access to good quality robust toys for families (start funding from District Committee 2016-17).
- Living/ working well
- ‘Try It Like It’ – Physical activity aimed at inactive sedentary beginners to get them involved in local clubs and community activity with local volunteers, trained up to deliver sessions (funded by the District Committee 2017-18).
- ‘Cross Roads Charity Shop’, Meltham – a hub for social activity in the village with many informal groups meeting for young and old e.g. young mums.
- ‘Made in Clayton West’ – active community network in the village; events, socials, activities e.g. Clayton West Walkers
- ‘Golcar and Slaithwaite Walkers are Welcome Group’ – active group keeping footpaths clear and usable, promoting local walking.
- Ageing well
- ‘Dementia Awareness Raising’ – connecting people to support in their communities from Kirklees Dementia Alliance (funded by the District Committee 2016-17).
- ‘Kirkburton Hub’ – many activities and groups e.g. Zumba, tea dance, food and film club, computer club.
- ‘Holme Valley Sharing Memories Group’ – working with socially isolated elderly people, intergenerational projects.
- Across the life course
- ‘Mental Health First Aid Training’ for community champions (funded by the District Committee 2017-18).
Schools as community hubs
Schools engage with families and children every day and they have a valuable position within our communities. It is, therefore, critical that the council, schools and their partners work more closely together, as we begin to shape future services.
In Kirklees Rural there are a number of schools developing partnership arrangements which support health improvement, for example, Holmfirth Family Hub which is made up of 11 schools within the District Committee. Each partnership is committed to working to a collective vision of: Strong partnerships of schools (hubs) as the vehicle for delivering a range of services for children, families and the wider community.
Emerging outcomes for the partnerships include improving health and social care outcomes for children and families, making the most of local insight and intelligence to respond to local need and statutory responsibilities, making the most of resources and assets (including their school), supporting locally delivered services and community based solutions, where relationships with children and families are key, wrap around family care and universal, prevention interventions.
The Kirklees Cycling and Walking Strategic Framework and its associated Delivery Plan will help make cycling and walking more attractive for local journeys, benefiting all sectors of the Kirklees Rural community and helping to raise awareness and understanding of the benefits of active travel. These documents will also influence other people’s agendas and decision makers in the allocation of resources.
Already in existence are ‘Walkers are Welcome’ groups in Denby Dale, Meltham and Slaithwaite which offer local people and visitors excellent walking opportunities within their areas and ensure that footpaths and facilities are well maintained.
What could commissioners/ service planners/ Councillors consider?
Build on existing community assets
It is important that commissioners, service planners and Councillors understand and consider the community assets outlined above, so that they can support and build on local strengths and also understand where there are gaps and unmet needs in particular places or amongst particular communities.
Work with Schools as Community hubs and other partnerships/ services
- Look for opportunities to support the development of schools as community hubs as described above. There are opportunities to use the hubs as a new context for existing work and also to develop new ideas directly with hubs. The hubs are increasingly becoming a focus for the recommissioning of a range of existing services and provide an infrastructure for sharing intelligence, identifying and responding to local needs.
- All service providers – such as schools, GPs, pharmacies, youth services – whose work has an influence on emotional wellbeing and/or sexual health, are encouraged to work alongside the new sexual health services in Kirklees. These have recently been redesigned with an increased focus on prevention of poor sexual health, including closer working with schools and more outreach work in communities.
Support improved emotional health and wellbeing:
- Support the local Kirklees suicide prevention action plan by:
- overcoming barriers to men accessing help (which links to good lifelong mental health starting in childhood);
- assessing and treating everyone who presents with depression or anxiety in primary or secondary care with rapid access to support and treatment;
- working with the public and voluntary sector to raise awareness of risk factors linked to suicide.
- Integrate existing mental health services into ‘ordinary’ services away from traditional health settings to reach more men.
- Work to promote workplace wellbeing within all types of organisations. Good quality employment is known to aid recovery and be a protective factor for good mental health.
- Support interventions to tackle social isolation and loneliness for working age adults as this group is more likely to develop mental health problems. (34)
- Promote existing local mental health support groups (listed in the Community Directory (35) to maximise the potential reach across the district.
Support healthy ageing:
- Develop peer support programmes for older people to address social isolation
- Promote local community services that aim to improve mood and social connectedness amongst older people, for example, Support 2 Recovery
- Promote dementia friendly communities
- Promote a positive representation of old age
Support initiatives that improve quality of life and of local places and communities including…
… Community cohesion
- Continue to develop community cohesion work in Kirklees Rural and work with communities to build a clear understanding of community assets.
… Housing and money
- Develop strategies to tackle the roots of fuel poverty, specifically boosting household income, improving energy efficiency and reducing energy costs.
- Work to ensure that local residents can access suitable housing, manage their own housing needs effectively and live in homes that are suitable for their needs.
- Work with communities to ensure they are confident and able to manage their own money effectively.
… Air quality and active travel
- Whilst the levels of nitrogen oxide in Kirklees Rural are reducing, there are no safe levels of air pollution. Partners should continue to work holistically across the district and enable the local community to contribute to improvements in air quality. Examples include replacing short car journeys by walking or cycling. This will encourage physical activity, improve air quality and help to reduce obesity and increase emotional wellbeing.
- Work to address the concerns of pedestrians and cyclists by tackling the perceived and real fears associated with cycling and walking, including reducing traffic volume and speed in line with current evidence.
- Create coherent, safe, high quality cycling and walking networks both on and off road – ensuring that the recommended hierarchy of consideration is applied, i.e. 1) Pedestrians 2) Cyclists before other road users; ensuring that maintenance of these routes is accommodated for.
- Endeavour to increase the amount of cycle parking across the District.
- Promote the district of Kirklees Rural as a cycling and walking destination for visitors.
- Work to ensure that Greenstreets principles are applied where appropriate in order to increase the amount of green infrastructure and to mitigate the effects of air pollution.
References and additional resources/links
- Office for National Statistics. Ward-level mid-year population estimates [Internet]. 2016. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/datasets/wardlevelmidyearpopulationestimatesexperimental
- Office for National Statistics. Birth Summary by District Committee. 2015;
- Office for National Statistics. Birth Summary Table 2015 [Internet]. 2015. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/livebirths/datasets/birthsummarytables
- Office for National Statistics. Census data [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2016 Jul 8]. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/census/2011census/2011censusdata
- Calderdale and Huddersfield Foundation Trust & Mid-Yorkshire Hospitals Trust. Maternity Indicators 2014-15. 2015.
- Kirklees Council. Births by ethnicity 2015/16. 2016;
- Office for National Statistics. Infant mortality by District Committee. 2015.
- Kirklees Council. Low birth weight by District Committee. 2016.
- Kirklees Council. Registered population by Ward and Age. 2015.
- Office for National Statistics. Primary Care Mortality Database 2012-14. 2014.
- West Yorkshire Central Services Agency. Local resident population (GP registrations). 2013;
- The National Centre for Health Outcomes & Development. Life expectancy by DC. 2015.
- Calderdale and Huddersfield Foundation Trust & Mid-Yorkshire Hospitals Trust. Breastfeeding at delivery by ward. 2016.
- Kirklees Council. Infants fully or partially breastfed at 6-8 weeks FQ03 15-16 [Internet]. Available from: http://observatory.kirklees.gov.uk/dataviews/tabular?viewId=532&geoId=145&subsetId=
- Calderdale and Huddersfield Foundation Trust & Mid-Yorkshire Hospitals Trust. Breastfeeding at 6 to 8 weeks. 2016.
- Calderdale and Huddersfield Foundation Trust & Mid-Yorkshire Hospitals Trust. Smoking at delivery. 2016.
- Sharma S, Dubinett S, Salgia R. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Its Effect on Childhood Asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186(10):940–1.
- Kirklees Council. Good level of development. 2015.
- Kirklees Council. Children and Young People’s Survey 2014. 2014.
- von Soest T, Mossige S, Stefansen K, Hjemdal O. A Validation Study of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ). J Psychopathol Behav Assess [Internet]. 2010;32(2):215–25. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-009-9149-x
- Health and Social Care Information Centre. National Child Measurement Programme 2015-16. 2016.
- Office for National Statistics. Teenage conception data 2012-14. 2014.
- Department for Education. GCSE results 2015-16. 2016.
- Kirklees Council. School census. 2014.
- Kirklees Council. NEET people age 16 to 19 [Internet]. 2015. Available from: http://observatory.kirklees.gov.uk/dataviews/tabular?viewId=532&geoId=145&subsetId=
- Tennant R, Hiller L, Fishwick R, Platt S, Joseph S, Weich S, et al. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health Qual Life Outcomes [Internet]. 2007;5:63. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2222612&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
- Kirklees Council;, NHS Greater Huddersfield CCG;, NHS North Kirklees CCG. Current Living in Kirklees Survey 2016. 2016.
- NOMIS. Official labour market statistics. 2015.
- Projecting Older People Population Information (POPPI) [Internet]. [cited 2016 Oct 3]. Available from: http://www.poppi.org.uk/
- Department of Health. Our Health and Wellbeing Today. 2010.
- Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (Defra). Air Quality: Economic Analysis [Internet]. Gov.uk – Guidance. 2015. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/air-quality-economic-analysis
- Kirklees Council. Mean gross household income profiles [Internet]. 2016. Available from: http://observatory.kirklees.gov.uk/profiles/profile?profileId=133
- Kirklees Council. Kirklees Strategic Housing Market Assessment 2015. 2015;(6205180). Available from: http://www.kirklees.gov.uk/beta/planning-policy/pdf/strategic-housing-market-assessment.pdf
- Pulkki-Råback L, Kivimäki M, Ahola K, Joutsenniemi K, Elovainio M, Rossi H, et al. Living alone and antidepressant medication use: a prospective study in a working-age population. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2012;12(1):236. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-236
- Kirklees Council. Community Directory – Mental health resources [Internet]. Available from: http://communitydirectory.kirklees.gov.uk/communityDirectory/search.aspx?q=S01/03/07. [Accessed 22 12 2015]
An overview profile for the Kirklees Rural district committee is available on the Kirklees Observatory. This profile provides key statistics in the form of tables and charts covering the following themes; population, housing, employment, deprivation, crime, education and the economy.
Ward level profiles can be found on the Local Health web site (requires Flash Player):
Colne Valley | Denby Dale | Golcar | Holme Valley North | Holme Valley South | Kirkburton
Further information about the local housing market can be found in the following documents:
The Private Rented Market in Kirklees | Kirklees Strategic Housing Market Assessment
Community assets identified at ‘Connected Colleagues’ event (Winter 2016): http://observatory.kirklees.gov.uk/Custom/Resources/Assets_in_Kirklees_Rural_030217.pdf
Additional web resources
Community Directory (support groups, etc): http://communitydirectory.kirklees.gov.uk/communityDirectory/
Health & Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) Indicator Portal: http://www.hscic.gov.uk/indicatorportal
Kirklees Observatory: http://observatory.kirklees.gov.uk/
Nomis labour official market statistics: https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/
Office for National Statistics: http://www.ons.gov.uk
Public Health Outcomes Framework (PHOF): https://fingertips.phe.org.uk/profile/public-health-outcomes-framework
Date this section was last reviewed